Currently, many functions in our car are controlled digitally, the computer in our car supervises many different sensors, one of the main functions of modern controllers is to supply the appropriate mixture to the combustion chamber.
In this case, the right amount of fuel and air should be provided to burn. Sensors can detect excess air after burning, then the computer gets information that a larger amount of fuel needs to be supplied. Until the 1980s, many throttle controls were carried out mechanically using a cable attached to the carburetor. The idle speed was simply adjusted with a screw so that the throttle flap was slightly open.
This simple method required regular adjustment of the idling speed and was susceptible to deviations depending on engine temperature or engine wear. In the 80s with the introduction of engine controllers, electronic valves were also introduced that solved many of these problems. This type of solution simplified the construction of some components because it was possible to dispense with many mechanical parts responsible for throttle control, it also eliminated many ignition problems. An important advantage of electronic throttle control is the fact that the engine controller can adjust the throttle angle during acceleration to properly regulate airflow. This improves the speed at which air flows through the inlet and provides an increase in torque. This is known as torque mapping and is only possible with electronic throttle control.
Of course, the engine controller can also regulate many other settings, when the air filter is blocked by dust, the computer can start the engine with a slightly reduced amount of fuel injection to compensate for this. This allows you to achieve maximum performance from the moment you start the engine, then the computer changes the standard settings and constantly controls the mix.
For older engines, the mix would be incorrect and the engine could go out. These adjustments apply not only to blocked air filters, but also to many systems in the engine or transmission. As components wear in hydraulic systems, they require a change in the time the electromagnet is started for compensation. Similarly, when the engine wears, the ability to pump air, and the throttle flap opening angle will have to change to maintain the correct engine speed at idle. In the past, engines relied on mechanical components to ensure their best performance. With the development and evolution of technology, more and more manufacturers began to use control modules and other electronic components to increase engine performance. Currently, the main element of these systems is the engine control unit. If our engine computer fails, we can replace it, it does not necessarily have to be a new product, it can adapt a used computer, many models for different cars can be found here: https://www.worldecu.com/en/ecu-engine-control-unit.